Spirits were the most consumed alcoholic beverages in Australia in the 1830s, with early conservative estimates showing that each person in New South Wales consumed 3.6 litres of pure alcohol per year. As part of a package of alcohol control initiatives recommended in the Drunkenness Task Force`s Martin Report, commercial hours at take-out alcohol outlets throughout the Northern Territory were reduced in July 1982 . In 1992, working hours were further reduced with the introduction of LWA. The Northern Territory has implemented a number of alcohol policies, some of which have positive effects. However, these policies have often existed in the context of clear politicization of alcohol policy, often with an implicit focus on Indigenous consumption. Robin Room: Well, if you look at the developed world, you know the developed countries in general, so Australia is kind of in the middle of the pack, and it`s more or less in the middle of the pack for the English-speaking countries as well. The other thing that can be said, of course, is that the developed world drinks much more than the developing world, where there are many more teetotalers and people are much poorer and cannot afford alcohol. Britain seems to have had a number of things that have happened mainly around youth drinking, but I don`t think it`s limited to youth drinking, it`s just that it`s mainly what the media draws attention to. A lot of things came together that essentially had to do with removing restrictions that people didn`t know had a purpose. In Thatcher`s time, for example, that changed so you could turn a restaurant into a pub without having to get permission from anyone, and they also forced the Monopolies Commission, the breweries, to sell their pub chains to a new type of company called pubcos, which had no memory of the problems of the temperance movement. that the brewers had.
and who acted much more aggressively in the marketplace. I also think they cracked down on raves and drug use by teenagers that pushed young people back into nightclubs and so on, and the alcohol industry actually noticed the appeal of club drugs and so on, and you can see the way they marketed their ready-made drinks and so on. with very colourful labels and coloured liquids, Essentially, young people were reminded that alcohol is essentially a drug. SMART courts were introduced by a Labour government on 1 July 2011. These courts offered offenders with a serious history of substance abuse who were convicted of certain crimes the opportunity to obtain a range of alternative penal orders that were not punitive and instead focused on rehabilitation . The intervention was based on the Swift Certain Fair response model to alcohol and drug crime , which was tested in jurisdictions in the United States and the United Kingdom [97,98,99]. SMART courts were repealed by the Compulsory Alcohol Treatment (NT) Act 2013 and have never been formally assessed. In many social situations, alcohol is more than likely to be available.
Alcohol is expected to be available at many social events such as family celebrations, pubs, clubs, sporting events, during meals, celebrations and even funerals.  Shaw G, Brady M, D`Abbs P. Managing Alcohol Consumption: A Review of Licensed Clubs in Remote Aboriginal Communities in the Northern Territory. Bowchung Pty Ltd: Canberra; 2015. by Abbs P. Control of “grog rivers”: the challenge of alcohol problems in Australian Indigenous communities. Contemporary drug problems. 2010;37(3):499-524. doi.org/10.1177/009145091003700307.
Originally called Temporary Beat Locations (TBL), later renamed Point-of-Sale Intervention (POSI) , this intervention consisted of “parking the police in front of take-out to prevent purchases by people who could not provide a residential address where alcohol would be consumed” . TBL and POSI have been operating part-time in Alice Springs since 2012. The deployment of TBVs and POSI was not a legislative intervention, but it laid the foundations for the PALIs, which constitute a legislative intervention and were adopted as such. The significant cost of housing fully paid police officers in front of takeaway and uncertainties about the legality of this process  reportedly contributed to the inconsistent application of the system with a mix of full-time and part-time coverage in Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek between 2012 and 2018. PALI are uniformed inspectors stationed at take-out alcohol outlets who attempt to prevent alcohol consumption in public and restricted areas. LIPs ask for identification and ask customers questions about their intended place of consumption. The purchase will be prevented if no valid (unrestricted) address can be provided. The first group of PALI graduated in August 2018 and went into service in Alice Springs . The PFNPF 2018-19 Annual Report indicates that 34 ILPs are located in Alice Springs (full coverage was achieved on October 3, 2018), 22 in Katherine (full coverage was achieved on January 3, 2019) and 4 in Tennant Creek (which began operations at the end of December 2018) . API has not been evaluated.
There has been a notable decrease in alcohol-related violence and dysfunction in communities facing alcohol bans and restrictions. In 2012, the newly elected Queensland state government under Premier Campbell Newman proposed removing restrictions on alcohol; A number of Indigenous elders and community leaders opposed these changes, citing the positive benefits of the laws.  Despite the many positive effects that alcohol bans have brought to Indigenous communities, there are still problems with alcohol consumption, particularly the problem of alcohol brewed at home. Home-brewed alcohol is commonplace in many indigenous communities where alcohol has been banned, with recent reports also calling for a ban on growing popular vegetables as it is used in alcohol production in some communities in the Northern Territory.  Smith J, Whetton S, of Abbs P. The social and economic costs and harms of alcohol consumption in the Northwest Territories. Menzies School of Health Research: Darwin; 2019. The Australian Medical Association says young people in Australia are exposed to unprecedented levels of alcohol marketing.
 While there is no prohibition on alcohol advertising in Australia, certain restrictions and conditions apply.  There are no restrictions on sponsorship of sporting events and youth in Australia.  According to the 2007 National Drug Strategy (NDSHS) National Household Survey, 82.9% of Australians aged 14 and over had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, and only 10.1% had never had at least 1 standard drink. They are a prestige alcoholic product for young people and tend to get drunk on special occasions, on prestigious occasions when people want to make a certain statement about themselves. But young people also know very well that wine is the cheapest way to get drunk, and I mean, if you talk to young people, they will talk about drinking “goon” if they want to get drunk because it`s cheap. If they increase the price of an alcoholic product, it is very easy to replace it with another. I think that if the government really wants to tax alcohol to solve the public health problem by trying to develop a tax system that has public health benefits, that tax system for alcohol has to be consistent, and it has to tax alcohol, that is, whatever beverage it is included in, so whether you have a standard liquor drink or a standard wine drink or a standard beverage of alcohol. Beer, you pay the same amount of taxes, so you can`t really switch from one to the other to get cheaper alcohol. Over the years, there have been many different social meanings of alcohol.
In Australia and elsewhere, wine, brandy, beer and stout were considered good supplements for the disabled. Alcohol was once considered a good, healthy food Lewis notes that it was consumed as a sacrament, toast, tonic, sedative, thirst-quenching and symbol of sophistication. Where does this cultural norm of consuming liters of alcohol come from, and how do people normalize and internalize it? Reference lists of grey and scientific literature were then handsearched for other relevant articles, resulting in 14 additional scientific articles and 27 grey literature papers (Fig.